News & Current Affairs

September 1, 2008

Peru’s first ‘visionary’ editor

Peru’s first ‘visionary’ editor

Doris Gibson, who 58 years ago founded Peru’s leading news magazine, has died at the age of 98. Her strength of character and determination helped the magazine withstand military dictatorships and repressive governments, as Dan Collyns reports.

Front page of Caretas showing a portait of Doris Gibson

Caretas magazine is famous for its mocking of the authorities

She began with 10,000 soles (£2,066), which her uncle had given her, and a typewriter in a single room.

The magazine was going to be called Caras y Caretas – faces and masks – but as Peru was under a military dictatorship at the time they decided to call it just Caretas to symbolize the repression they were living under.

They planned to revert to the original title after the dictatorship but it never happened.

Soon afterwards, the magazine was shut down for the first time. It was to be the first of eight closures, most of them during another military dictatorship in the 1970s of General Juan Velasco.

“She would be very creative in how she overcame the closures,” says her granddaughter Diana. “With her everything was possible.”

Genteel poverty

She was born in Lima, by accident, in 1910.

In those days, people travelled by boat between the capital and Arequipa, Peru’s upmarket second city nestled in the Andes to the south.

Her mother was aboard ship and about to head home to Arequipa when her waters broke and she had to go ashore to give birth.

She was the daughter of Percy Gibson, a poet who rebelled from his wealthy merchant family of British descent to live a literary life.

Doris’ younger sister Charo says he never worked a day in his life and she and her many sisters grew up in genteel poverty.

Bohemian life

Doris Gibson

Doris’ son described her as an instinctive fighter

At a young age Doris married an Argentine diplomat, Manlio Zileri, and bore an only son, Enrique, who went on to become the longest-standing editor of Caretas, earning a reputation as Peru’s best journalist.

Just a few years later she was granted one of staunchly-Catholic Peru’s first divorces and she began an intensely bohemian life surrounding herself with artists, intellectuals and politicians.

Doris was a very beautiful young woman and famous for her long, shapely legs. She had a relationship with the artist Servulo Gutierrez to whom she was both a lover and a muse.

He famously painted a life-size nude portrait of her which – following an argument – he sold to a wealthy businessman.

She was independent at a time when women were dependent on their husbands

Her granddaughter Diana says she went to the man’s house with a photographer from the magazine.

They said they needed to photograph the painting in the sunlight, so they put it outside on the car and promptly drove away with it.

“I don’t want to be nude in your house,” she told the man when he called to ask for it back.

Defiance

Despite her upper-class background her friends say she had an old-world warmth for all the people she knew from the shopkeeper down the road to her domestic servants.

Having money, or not, was a question of luck, she was fond of saying.

The magazine is famous for its front covers. Always visually audacious, ironic and mocking authority

Her warmth was also volcanic, says her son Enrique, like the famous Misti volcano which overlooks her home town of Arequipa. Their arguments were legendary.

But she also aimed that fire at successive repressive governments which tried to silence the most important political magazine in Peru.

She confronted soldiers when they raided the office and had photographers poised to record the break-ins.

“Mala hierba nunca muere” – Bad weeds never die – exclaimed the leaflets she had scattered throughout Lima as if freedom of speech would grow up through the cracks in the pavement.

Caretas could not be silenced.

The magazine is famous for its front covers. Always visually audacious, ironic and mocking authority.

When Alberto Fujimori’s birthplace – and thus eligibility to be president – was called into question in 1997, his head was superimposed on the rising sun of the Japanese flag with the words: Once again: Where was he born?

“She was instinctively a fighter,” says her son Enrique, “and a natural businesswoman.”

Visionary

For years she lived on the eighth floor in the same building as the magazine. It survived for all its years due to her intense presence which inspired fierce loyalty in her journalists.

Doris Gibson

Doris’ determination helped Caretas withstand Peru’s military regimes

She was independent at a time when women were dependent on their husbands.

A feminist before the movement had begun, and according to many, a visionary who influenced the course of Peru’s recent history through the brave and defiant reporting of the magazine she created.

For some time we shared the top floor of a block of flats.

Her carer, Chela, invited me across the hall to meet her. The flat she shared with her younger sister Charo was like a museum. Full of copper pans, paintings and artefacts.

She had just celebrated her 97th birthday. Her cheeks were hollow and her eyes had sunken into her skull, but she looked straight at me.

She held my hand in her tight grip, pulling me forward slightly as she tried to utter some words. I told her who I was and Chela repeated what I had said at volume.

As I walked out of the room I saw a black and white photograph portrait of a beautiful, bright eyed young woman. She had dark flowing hair, porcelain skin and rosebud lips. It was Doris, aged 16.

August 24, 2008

Solar plane makes record flight

Solar plane makes record flight

A UK-built solar-powered plane has set an unofficial world endurance record for a flight by an unmanned aircraft.

The Zephyr-6, as it is known, stayed aloft for more than three days,
running through the night on batteries it had recharged in sunlight.

The flight was a demonstration for the US military, which is
looking for new types of technology to support its troops on the
ground.

Craft like Zephyr might make ideal platforms for reconnaissance.

They could also be used to relay battlefield communications.

Chris Kelleher, from UK defence and research firm QinetiQ, said
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer advantages over traditional
aircraft and even satellites.

“The principal advantage is persistence – that you would be
there all the time,” he told BBC News. “A satellite goes over the same
part of the Earth twice a day – and one of those is at night – so it’s
only really getting a snapshot of activity. Zephyr would be watching
all day.”

Deployment close

The latest flight was conducted at the US Army’s Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona.

The Zephyr flew non-stop for 82 hours, 37 minutes.

Altitude infographic NOT TO SCALE (BBC)

That time beats the current official world record for unmanned
flight set by the US robot plane Global Hawk – of 30 hours, 24 minutes
– and even Zephyr’s own previous best of 54 hours achieved last year.

However, the Yuma mark remains “unofficial” because QinetiQ did
not involve the FAI (Federation Aeronautique Internationale), the world
air sports federation, which sanctions all record attempts.

The US Department of Defense funded the demonstration flight
under its Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) programme.

This programme is designed to advance the technologies American commanders would most like to see in the field.

“We think Zephyr is very close to an operational system – within
the next two years is what we’re aiming for,” Mr Kelleher said. “We
have one more step of improvements; we trying to design a robust and
reliable system that will really sit up there for months; and we want
to push the performance.”

Energy density

The trial, which took place between 28 and 31 July, also included the participation of the UK Ministry of Defence.

The 30kg Zephyr was guided by remote control to an operating
altitude in excess of 18km (60,000ft), and then flown on autopilot and
via satellite communication.

It tested a communications payload weighing approximately 2kg.

Zephyr (QinetiQ)

Zephyr should be in commanders’ hands within two years

At first sight, the propeller-driven Zephyr looks to be just another
model aircraft, and it is even launched by hand. But this “pilotless”
vehicle with its 18-metre wingspan incorporates world-leading
technologies.

Its structure uses ultra-lightweight carbon-fibre material; and
the plane flies on solar power generated by amorphous silicon solar
arrays no thicker than sheets of paper. These are glued over the
aircraft’s wings.

To get through the night, the propellers are powered from lithium-sulphur batteries which are topped up during the day.

“A lot of effort has gone into power storage and light-weighting
the systems,” explained Mr Kelleher. “Lithium sulphur is more than
double the energy density of the best alternative technology which is
lithium polymer batteries.

“They are an exceptional performer. We’ve worked with the Sion
Corporation. They’ve had them in development for years. We’re actually
the first application in the world for them.”

Vulture venture

Zephyr has demonstrated that it can cope with extremes of
temperature – from the blistering 45C heat found at ground level in
Arizona’s Sonoran Desert, to the minus 70C chill experienced at
altitudes of more than 18km (60,000ft).

The engineers from the Farnborough-based company are now
collaborating with the American aerospace giant Boeing on a defence
project codenamed Vulture.

This would see the biggest plane in history take to the sky,
powered by the sun and capable of carrying a 450-kilo (1,000lb)
payload.

US commanders say the design must be able to maintain its
position over a particular spot on the Earth’s surface uninterrupted
for five years.

QinetiQ is also developing UAV technology for civilian uses.

It has been working recently with Aberystwyth University on
field monitoring trials, plotting areas of ground that may or may not
need fertiliser applications.

Zephyr (QinetiQ)
Lightweight plane (30-34kg/70lb) is launched by hand
Coms or surveillance payload of about 2kg (4.5lb)
Flies autonomously and can climb to more than 18km (60,000ft)
By day, Zephyr flies on solar power and recharges its batteries
Advanced amorphous silicon solar arrays supplied by Unisolar
Rechargeable lithium-sulphur batteries supplied by Sion Corp

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